Leather fragments found in the moat at Caerlaverock Castle have been used to reconstruct this adult shoe. Among them was an almost-complete shoe upper. Its stitched edges and strap with a hole for a toggle suggest a shoe style dating from the 1500s.

Many leather finds were made during excavations at the castle which took place between 1955 and 1966. These are regarded as the finest surviving pieces of medieval leather work in Scotland. The sizes of individual pieces within the Caerlaverock shoe assemblage indicate that women, adolescents, and children lived and worked at the castle alongside men.

In Scotland shoemakers were known as ‘soutars’, and those who worked with higher grade leather were called ‘cordiners’. The leather used in shoemaking underwent processes including cleaning, scraping, tanning, and currying or oiling. These made the leather durable and workable. The master shoemaker cut the shoe leather using a crescent-shaped knife, then their apprentices and journeymen (a qualified worker) sewed the shoes.

Caerlaverock Castle

Caerlaverock’s triangular shape is unique among British castles. A walk around the castle gives a sense of its strength, economy of form and pleasing geometry.

Three lengths of defensive curtain wall are linked at their three angles by high corner towers. On the north side is an impressive twin-towered gatehouse, where the Maxwells had their private rooms.

The Maxwells repaired and upgraded Caerlaverock over the years. The impressive machicolations (slotted defences) at the top of each tower date from the late 1300s or early 1400s – by which time the Wars of Independence with England had taken their toll.

Inside the castle walls is the remarkable Nithsdale Lodging, built in the 1630s by Robert Maxwell, 1st Earl of Nithsdale. Its attractive façade, with its ornate Renaissance stone carvings, is a sharp contrast to the severe castle walls.

Tale of two sieges

Caerlaverock was besieged and captured on numerous occasions, but two sieges in particular stand out.

The first, in July 1300, involved Edward I himself. The small garrison surrendered within two days of facing the full might of the English king’s army. A contemporary account of the siege is one of the most fascinating recorded for any castle in the British Isles.

The second siege, in 1640, was the castle’s last. It was brought about by Lord Maxwell’s loyalty to Charles I during his struggles with the Covenanters. The garrison held out for 13 weeks before surrendering.

Afterwards the castle was stripped of valuable fixtures and fittings and its great south curtain wall demolished so that Caerlaverock could never again be used as a place of defence.

Natural history

Many rare animals and plants live in the castle grounds, which lies next to Caerlaverock Nature Reserve.

There are 15 habitats in the grounds, including:

  • semi-natural ancient woodland
  • swamp and ponds
  • unimproved grassland

That so many nationally important habitats survive is testament to Caerlaverock’s protection as a significant historical site.

Find out more about Caerlaverock Castle


Date Made
16th century
220 x 90mm
Property Information
Caerlaverock Castle
Object Number
Access Status