Henry III (1216-1272) penny, 1247-1259.

Found during excavations at Caerlaverock Castle,in Dumfries and Galloway, this silver coin offers an example of Canterbury issue cl.5-7. The obverse depicts the facing bust of the king, holding a sceptre with the regnal number,III, to its left at legend.

A voided long cross with three pellets at each quarter is on the reverse.This design was introduced in 1247 to replace earlier 'short cross' coinage. This type had a cross that extended to the edge of the coin that was designed to prevent the illegal practice of clipping off small fragments of silver while the coins were in circulation.

The inscription on the obverse reads HENRICVS REX III, that is 'King Henry III'. The Latin inscription indicates the name of the moneyer and the mint on the reverse: ION CANTERBVRY.

Henry III was the first king introducing the practice of indicating the regnal number on the coins.

Caerlaverock Castle

Caerlaverock’s triangular shape is unique among British castles. A walk around the castle gives a sense of its strength, economy of form and pleasing geometry.

Three lengths of defensive curtain wall are linked at their three angles by high corner towers. On the north side is an impressive twin-towered gatehouse, where the Maxwells had their private rooms.

The Maxwells repaired and upgraded Caerlaverock over the years. The impressive machicolations (slotted defences) at the top of each tower date from the late 1300s or early 1400s – by which time the Wars of Independence with England had taken their toll.

Inside the castle walls is the remarkable Nithsdale Lodging, built in the 1630s by Robert Maxwell, 1st Earl of Nithsdale. Its attractive façade, with its ornate Renaissance stone carvings, is a sharp contrast to the severe castle walls.

Tale of two sieges

Caerlaverock was besieged and captured on numerous occasions, but two sieges in particular stand out.

The first, in July 1300, involved Edward I himself. The small garrison surrendered within two days of facing the full might of the English king’s army. A contemporary account of the siege is one of the most fascinating recorded for any castle in the British Isles.

The second siege, in 1640, was the castle’s last. It was brought about by Lord Maxwell’s loyalty to Charles I during his struggles with the Covenanters. The garrison held out for 13 weeks before surrendering.

Afterwards the castle was stripped of valuable fixtures and fittings and its great south curtain wall demolished so that Caerlaverock could never again be used as a place of defence.

Natural history

Many rare animals and plants live in the castle grounds, which lies next to Caerlaverock Nature Reserve.

There are 15 habitats in the grounds, including:

  • semi-natural ancient woodland
  • swamp and ponds
  • unimproved grassland

That so many nationally important habitats survive is testament to Caerlaverock’s protection as a significant historical site.

 

Find out more about Caerlaverock Castle

Details

Date Made
1247-1259
Dimensions
dia 17.4mm (dia 11/16")
Time Period
Medieval
Property Information
Caerlaverock Castle
Object Number
CAER509
Access Status
Storage

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