Henry III penny
This silver coin made in the reign of Henry III (1216–72) was found during a dig at Caerlaverock Castle. The penny was made between 1247 and 1259, in Canterbury.
A facing bust of the king, holding a sceptre, adorns the heads side of the coin. Beside him is the legend ‘HENRICVS REX III’ – that is, ‘King Henry III’. Indeed, it was Henry III who began the practice of including the regnal number on coins.
The tails side features a design meant to stop the illegal practice of clipping small fragments of silver from coins in circulation. In place of the usual short cross is a voided long cross (only its edges are shown), which extends all the way to the edge of the coin. This design was introduced in 1247.
The names of the moneyer and mint are also on the reverse, in Latin: ‘ION CANTERBVRY’.
Caerlaverock’s triangular shape is unique among British castles. A walk around the castle gives a sense of its strength, economy of form and pleasing geometry.
Three lengths of defensive curtain wall are linked at their three angles by high corner towers. On the north side is an impressive twin-towered gatehouse, where the Maxwells had their private rooms.
The Maxwells repaired and upgraded Caerlaverock over the years. The impressive machicolations (slotted defences) at the top of each tower date from the late 1300s or early 1400s – by which time the Wars of Independence with England had taken their toll.
Inside the castle walls is the remarkable Nithsdale Lodging, built in the 1630s by Robert Maxwell, 1st Earl of Nithsdale. Its attractive façade, with its ornate Renaissance stone carvings, is a sharp contrast to the severe castle walls.
Tale of two sieges
Caerlaverock was besieged and captured on numerous occasions, but two sieges in particular stand out.
The first, in July 1300, involved Edward I himself. The small garrison surrendered within two days of facing the full might of the English king’s army. A contemporary account of the siege is one of the most fascinating recorded for any castle in the British Isles.
The second siege, in 1640, was the castle’s last. It was brought about by Lord Maxwell’s loyalty to Charles I during his struggles with the Covenanters. The garrison held out for 13 weeks before surrendering.
Afterwards the castle was stripped of valuable fixtures and fittings and its great south curtain wall demolished so that Caerlaverock could never again be used as a place of defence.
Many rare animals and plants live in the castle grounds, which lies next to Caerlaverock Nature Reserve.
There are 15 habitats in the grounds, including:
- semi-natural ancient woodland
- swamp and ponds
- unimproved grassland
That so many nationally important habitats survive is testament to Caerlaverock’s protection as a significant historical site.
- Date Made
- dia 17.4mm (dia 11/16")
- Silver/Metal/BM Processed
- Time Period
- Early medieval, Medieval
- Property Information
- Caerlaverock Castle
- Object Number
- Access Status