George III (1760-1820) cartwheel penny, 1797.

This big heavy coin offers an example of the first copper penny circulated in Britain.

The obverse design bears the robed and laureate bust of King George III with long hair. On the reverse seats Britannia, holding an olive branch and a trident, with a shield resting beside and a small ship in the left background. The inscription is incuse (impressed with a stamp) and on the rim on both sides.

On the obverse, the Latin reads 'GEORGIUS III. D: G. REX', which translates as 'George III by the grace of God King'. The reverse quotes 'BRITANNIA', that is 'Britain', with the date below, 1797.

Created to combat counterfeiting, these coins were the first in England to be minted on a steam powered press, developed by James Watt and the manufacturer Mathew Boulton at the Soho foundry in 1788. In 1797, the government agreed to let Boulton coin a penny and a two pence. Each denomination is perfectly round and the excellent craftsmanship eliminated counterfeiting. The wide raised rim led to the term 'cartwheel’. The copper penny was minted for two or three years, but continued to carry the date 1797.

Caerlaverock Castle

Caerlaverock’s triangular shape is unique among British castles. A walk around the castle gives a sense of its strength, economy of form and pleasing geometry.

Three lengths of defensive curtain wall are linked at their three angles by high corner towers. On the north side is an impressive twin-towered gatehouse, where the Maxwells had their private rooms.

The Maxwells repaired and upgraded Caerlaverock over the years. The impressive machicolations (slotted defences) at the top of each tower date from the late 1300s or early 1400s – by which time the Wars of Independence with England had taken their toll.

Inside the castle walls is the remarkable Nithsdale Lodging, built in the 1630s by Robert Maxwell, 1st Earl of Nithsdale. Its attractive façade, with its ornate Renaissance stone carvings, is a sharp contrast to the severe castle walls.

Tale of two sieges

Caerlaverock was besieged and captured on numerous occasions, but two sieges in particular stand out.

The first, in July 1300, involved Edward I himself. The small garrison surrendered within two days of facing the full might of the English king’s army. A contemporary account of the siege is one of the most fascinating recorded for any castle in the British Isles.

The second siege, in 1640, was the castle’s last. It was brought about by Lord Maxwell’s loyalty to Charles I during his struggles with the Covenanters. The garrison held out for 13 weeks before surrendering.

Afterwards the castle was stripped of valuable fixtures and fittings and its great south curtain wall demolished so that Caerlaverock could never again be used as a place of defence.

Natural history

Many rare animals and plants live in the castle grounds, which lies next to Caerlaverock Nature Reserve.

There are 15 habitats in the grounds, including:

  • semi-natural ancient woodland
  • swamp and ponds
  • unimproved grassland

That so many nationally important habitats survive is testament to Caerlaverock’s protection as a significant historical site.

Find out more about Caerlaverock Castle


Date Made
dia 35.8mm (dia 1 7/16")
Property Information
Caerlaverock Castle
Object Number
Access Status