George II (1727-1760), halfpenny, Young Head 1729 -39; Old Head 1740 - 1754.

This coin offers an example of copper coinage issued under the reign of George II. Unfortunately, the worn surface at design makes it difficult to establish whether it is an earlier or last issue.

The obverse of this coin bears the laureate bust of the king as 'Young Head or 'Old Head'. On the reverse Britannia is seated at centre, holding an olive branch and a spear, with shield to the right.

The Latin inscription on the obverse reads 'GEORGIVS II REX', which translates as: 'King George II'. The other side of the coin quotes' BRITAN NIA', that is ' Britain', followed by the date.

George II was born and brought up in Germany and for this reason exercised little control over Britain's domestic policy as a king. In 1745, supporters of the Catholic claimant to the British throne, James Francis Edward Stuart , 'The Old Pretender', led by James's son, Charles Edward Stuart, 'The Young Pretender' or 'Bonnie Prince Charlie', attempted and failed to depose George in the last of the Jacobite rebellions. During George II's reign British interests expanded throughout the world with the colonization of North America, the power of Parliament in Britain became well-established, and the Jacobite challenge to the Hanoverian dynasty was extinguished.

Caerlaverock Castle

Caerlaverock’s triangular shape is unique among British castles. A walk around the castle gives a sense of its strength, economy of form and pleasing geometry.

Three lengths of defensive curtain wall are linked at their three angles by high corner towers. On the north side is an impressive twin-towered gatehouse, where the Maxwells had their private rooms.

The Maxwells repaired and upgraded Caerlaverock over the years. The impressive machicolations (slotted defences) at the top of each tower date from the late 1300s or early 1400s – by which time the Wars of Independence with England had taken their toll.

Inside the castle walls is the remarkable Nithsdale Lodging, built in the 1630s by Robert Maxwell, 1st Earl of Nithsdale. Its attractive façade, with its ornate Renaissance stone carvings, is a sharp contrast to the severe castle walls.

Tale of two sieges

Caerlaverock was besieged and captured on numerous occasions, but two sieges in particular stand out.

The first, in July 1300, involved Edward I himself. The small garrison surrendered within two days of facing the full might of the English king’s army. A contemporary account of the siege is one of the most fascinating recorded for any castle in the British Isles.

The second siege, in 1640, was the castle’s last. It was brought about by Lord Maxwell’s loyalty to Charles I during his struggles with the Covenanters. The garrison held out for 13 weeks before surrendering.

Afterwards the castle was stripped of valuable fixtures and fittings and its great south curtain wall demolished so that Caerlaverock could never again be used as a place of defence.

Natural history

Many rare animals and plants live in the castle grounds, which lies next to Caerlaverock Nature Reserve.

There are 15 habitats in the grounds, including:

  • semi-natural ancient woodland
  • swamp and ponds
  • unimproved grassland

That so many nationally important habitats survive is testament to Caerlaverock’s protection as a significant historical site.


Find out more about Caerlaverock Castle


Date Made
dia 27.3mm (dia 1 1/16")
Property Information
Caerlaverock Castle
Object Number
Access Status